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CDC Resources: Epidemiology-Outcomes

SCCM’s COVID-19 Rapid Resource Center now links to pertinent content from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These resources are categorized as Epidemiology-Outcomes

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Provisional COVID-19 Age-Adjusted Death Rates, by Race and Ethnicity — United States, 2020–2021
Date Added: 5/19/2022
Disparities in COVID-19 death rates by race and ethnicity have been reported in the United States. In response to these disparities, preventive, medical care, and social service assistance programs were implemented to lessen disparities in COVID-19 outcomes, including grants to support state, tribal, local, and territorial health department responses. The potential impact of such efforts on annual changes in racial and ethnic disparities in mortality rates that identify COVID-19 as the underlying cause of death has not been previously reported. This analysis used U.S. provisional mortality data from death certificates collected by CDC’s National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) to estimate changes in COVID-19–related age-adjusted death rates (AADRs) by race and ethnicity during 2020–2021. 
 
Provisional Mortality Data - United States, 2021
Date Added: 5/19/2022
The overall age-adjusted death rate increased by 0.7% in 2021 from 2020. Overall death rates were highest among non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaskan Native and non-Hispanic Black or African American populations. For a second year, COVID-19 was the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer.
 
COVID Data Tracker: Wastewater Surveillance
Date Added: 5/19/2022
COVID Data Tracker’s Wastewater Surveillance tab now displays data showing levels of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater in participating communities across the United States. The current SARS-CoV-2 levels for each site are shown as a comparison to past levels at that site.
 
COVID Data Tracker: Integrated County View
Date Added: 5/19/2022
COVID Data Tracker added U.S. territories to the COVID-19 Community Levels map on the County View tab.
 
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) — Effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination in Preventing COVID-19–Associated Hospitalization Among Adults with Previous SARS-CoV-2 Infection — United States, June 2021–February 2022
Date Added: 5/19/2022
Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has been estimated to confer up to 90% protection against reinfection, although this protection was lower against the Omicron variant compared with that against other SARS-CoV-2 variants. A test-negative design was used to estimate effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in preventing subsequent COVID-19–associated hospitalization among adults aged ≥18 years with a previous positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or diagnosis of COVID-19. The analysis used data from Cosmos, an electronic health record data set, and compared vaccination status of 3,761 case-patients (positive NAAT result associated with hospitalization) with 7,522 matched control-patients (negative NAAT result). 

COVID-19 Community Levels
Date Added: 3/31/2022
COVID-19 Community Levels monitor the number of new cases in communities across the country and the burden COVID-19 is placing on local healthcare systems. This new approach aims to minimize the impact COVID-19 has on our health, healthcare systems, and society, while focusing efforts on protecting those who are most at risk of severe illness.

COVID-19–Associated Hospitalizations Among Adults During SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance, by Race/Ethnicity and Vaccination Status — COVID-NET, 14 States, July 2021–January 2022
Date Added: 3/31/2022
SARS-CoV-2 infections can result in COVID-19–associated hospitalizations, even among vaccinated persons. In January 2022, unvaccinated adults and those vaccinated with a primary series, but no booster or additional dose, were 12 and three times as likely to be hospitalized, respectively, as were adults who received booster or additional doses. Hospitalization rates among non-Hispanic Black adults increased more than rates in other racial/ethnic groups.

Underlying Medical Conditions Associated with Higher Risk for Severe COVID-19: Information for Healthcare Professionals
Date Added: 3/14/2022
An updated list of high-risk underlying conditions, based on what has been reported in the literature as of October 7, 2021 is provided below. The conditions are grouped by the level of evidence, with the highest level at the top. The list of underlying medical conditions is not exhaustive and will be updated as the science evolves. CDC is currently reviewing additional underlying conditions, and some of these might have sufficient evidence to be added to the list. This list should not be used to exclude people with underlying conditions from recommended preventive measures such as booster doses of vaccines or needed therapies.

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes Among Adults Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection During Periods of B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Variant Predominance — One Hospital, California, July 15–September 23, 2021, and December 21, 2021–January 27, 2022
Date Added: 2/16/2022
Among adults hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection during Omicron predominance, COVID-19 vaccination, including with a booster dose, was associated with lower likelihood of intensive care unit admission. Compared with patients during the period of Delta predominance, Omicron-period patients had less severe illness, largely driven by an increased proportion who were fully vaccinated. Approximately 20% of early Omicron-period hospitalizations were for non–COVID-19 conditions, particularly among young and vaccinated adults.

Trends in Disease Severity and Health Care Utilization During the Early Omicron Variant Period Compared with Previous SARS-CoV-2 High Transmission Periods — United States, December 2020–January 2022
Date Added: 2/9/2022
Despite Omicron seeing the highest reported numbers of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations during the pandemic, disease severity indicators, including length of stay, ICU admission, and death, were lower than during previous pandemic peaks.

COVID-19 Cases and Hospitalizations by COVID-19 Vaccination Status and Previous COVID-19 Diagnosis — California and New York, May–November 2021
Date Added: 2/4/2022
To examine the impact of primary COVID-19 vaccination and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection on COVID-19 incidence and hospitalization rates, statewide testing, surveillance, and COVID-19 immunization data from California and New York (which account for 18% of the U.S. population) were analyzed. Four cohorts of adults aged ≥18 years were considered: persons who were 1) unvaccinated with no previous laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, 2) vaccinated (14 days after completion of a primary COVID-19 vaccination series) with no previous COVID-19 diagnosis, 3) unvaccinated with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis, and 4) vaccinated with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis. Age-adjusted hazard rates of incident laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in both states were compared among cohorts, and in California, hospitalizations during May 30–November 20, 2021, were also compared.

Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19 Outcomes Among Persons Aged ≥18 Years Who Completed a Primary COVID-19 Vaccination Series — 465 Health Care Facilities, United States, December 2020–October 2021
Date Added: 1/21/2022
Among 1,228,664 persons who completed primary vaccination during December 2020–October 2021, severe COVID-19–associated outcomes (0.015%) or death (0.0033%) were rare. Risk factors for severe outcomes included age ≥65 years, immunosuppressed, and six other underlying conditions. All persons with severe outcomes had at least one risk factor; 78% of persons who died had at least four.
 
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) — Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Children and Adolescents Aged <18 Years Hospitalized with COVID-19 — Six Hospitals, United States, July–August 2021
Date Added: 1/12/2022
During June 2021, the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. U.S. pediatric COVID-19–related hospitalizations increased during July–August 2021 following emergence of the Delta variant and peaked in September 2021. As of May 12, 2021, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥12 years, and on November 2, 2021, COVID-19 vaccinations were recommended for persons aged 5–11 years. To date, clinical signs and symptoms, illness course, and factors contributing to hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance have not been well described in pediatric patients. CDC partnered with six children’s hospitals to review medical record data for patients aged <18 years with COVID-19–related hospitalizations during July–August 2021. Among 915 patients identified, 713 (77.9%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 (acute COVID-19 as the primary or contributing reason for hospitalization), 177 (19.3%) had incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (asymptomatic or mild infection unrelated to the reason for hospitalization), and 25 (2.7%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19.


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Categories: Epidemiology-Outcomes, Disaster,
Content Type: External Resource,