The past 50 years have been marked by increased understanding of the underpinnings of sepsis, its myriad manifestations, and optimal approaches to therapy.
Below, follow a timeline of sepsis research and treatment. Learn what your role is today in the effort to reduce and treat sepsis in adult and pediatric patients.
The deleterious clinical impact of infected central IV catheters in the ICU was recognized.
Animal models of sepsis emerged.
Indirect calorimetry and nitrogen balance were popularized for studying the metabolic response to sepsis.
An exotoxin from Staphylococcus aureus was identified as a cause of toxic shock syndrome and linked to tampon use.
Profound but reversible myocardial depression was reported in patients with septic shock.
The term “sepsis syndrome” was coined to represent infection-induced organ dysfunction.
Antimediator therapies showed promise in sepsis animal models, and a study of antiendotoxin therapy found an association with improved outcomes.
The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and the Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS) emerged as inventories to quantify the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis.
Large clinical trials of innovative sepsis therapies were unsuccessful.
Each hour of delay in administering appropriate antibiotics to patients with septic shock was associated with increased mortality.
A second randomized trial of stress-dose corticosteroids in patients with less severe septic shock failed to validate a mortality reduction associated with replacement therapy.
A follow-up trial of rhAPC administration in patients with septic shock failed to reduce mortality at either 28 or 90 days.
Two large randomized trials of EGDT versus usual care in early septic shock showed no difference in outcomes.
An analysis of over 17,500 patients enrolled in the SSC international performance improvement program demonstrated an association between sepsis bundle compliance and mortality.
A third consensus conference published revised definitions of sepsis and septic shock and recommended eliminating the term “severe sepsis.”
A World Health Organization resolution recognized sepsis as a global health priority.
The SSC released the first international sepsis guidelines for children.