Most influenza seasons peak nationally in the United States during January through March. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has received reports of critical illness and deaths in the U.S. associated with influenza this season, but national severity indicators are not elevated at this time.
Influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09, and influenza B viruses have all been detected in the U.S. this season, and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses have predominated in recent weeks. The H1N1pdm09 virus is the same virus that emerged in 2009 to cause an influenza pandemic; this virus has continued to circulate as a seasonal influenza A virus and has caused moderately severe influenza epidemics, including during 2013-2014.
Laboratory data indicate that circulating influenza A and B viruses are similar to the virus strains included in available 2015-2016 influenza vaccines, and there are no reports of resistance to the approved neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medications, oral oseltamivir, intravenous peramivir and inhaled zanamivir. Influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged 6 months and older in the United States., and it is not too late to get influenza vaccination.
Sustained Mechanical Ventilation Outside of Traditional Intensive Care Units (Fundamental Disaster Management - FDM)
U.S. influenza surveillance weekly reports:
The World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) is a non-operational, non-governmental, multidisciplinary organization whose mission is the global improvement of pre-hospital and emergency health care, public health, and disaster health and preparedness.
The map displays outbreaks, cases, and deaths from viral and bacterial diseases worldwide.
iCritical Care Podcasts
SCCM Pod-106 Discussion of H1N1 Influenza - Part I
Randy S. Wax, MD, discusses the current outbreak of H1N1 Influenza, the triage protocol for critical care during an influenza epidemic, the public's role in taking necessary precautions, and educational resources that are available. The background materials cited in this podcast can be found online at Christian MD, Hawryluck L, Wax RS et al. Development of a triage protocol for critical care during an influenza pandemic. CMAJ. 2006;175;1377-1381 and the International Society for Infectious Diseases. Wax is an intensivist at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Assistant Professor of Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto. He has multiple areas of expertise, including disaster management. This podcast is the first in a series focused on the H1N1 Influenza outbreak.
SCCM Pod-107 Discussion of H1N1 Influenza - Part II
John H. Beigel, MD, clarifies the definition of influenza and discusses the evolution of viruses, speculation on the mode of transmission and the role of vaccines and therapies as they relate to H1N1 Influenza. The conversation references his recent publication in Critical Care Medicine (Beigel JH. Influenza. Crit Care Med. 2008; 36:2660-2666). Beigel is Director of Clinical Research at MacroGenics, Inc. in Rockville, Maryland, and a volunteer consultant at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. This podcast is the second in a series focused on the H1N1 Influenza outbreak.
SCCM Pod-108 Discussion of H1N1 Influenza - Part III
Naomi O'Grady, MD clarifies the strain of the current virus, discusses the difference between a pandemic and an epidemic, and outlines the prescription therapies available specific to H1N1 Influenza. O'Grady is a senior staff physician in the Clinical Center's Critical Care Medicine Department and the medical director of the department's Vascular Access and Conscious Sedation Services at the National Institutes of Health. She also is an attending physician with the Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Department of the Children's National Medical Center and an assistant professor in the Department of Internal Medicine's Division of Infectious Diseases at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. This podcast is the third in a series focused on the H1N1 Influenza outbreak.
SCCM Pod-256 The Burden of Influenza-Associated Critical Illness Hospitalization
Ludwig Lin, MD, speaks with Colin R. Cooke, MD, about the article, “The Burden of Influenza-Associated Critical Illness Hospitalizations,” published in the November 2014 issue of Critical Care Medicine. Dr. Cooke is an Assistant Professor of Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine in the Department of Medicine at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In this article, Dr. Cooke and coauthors use mathematical modeling and data to examine seasonal influenza and its relationship to critical illness hospitalizations. Crit Care Med. 2014; 42(11):2325-2332.
Treating Lethal Infectious Disease in the ICU
Lewis A. Rubinson, MD, PhD
Critical Care Resuscitation Unit
R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
Baltimore, Maryland, USA